Choroidal Folds

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  • Asymptomatic, visual impairment, metamorphopsia
  • Parallel arranged (typically horizontal) folds, typically at the posterior pole


  • Endocrine orbitopathy
  • High hyperopia
  • Hypotony
  • Nonspecific orbital inflammation
  • Idiopathic
  • Neovascular membrane
  • Orbital/choroidal tumors
  • Posterior scleritis
  • Postoperative
  • Retrobulbar mass/tumors
  • Papilledema
  • Trauma


  • Visual acuity, refraction, Amsler grid
  • Intraocular pressure
  • OCT 2, autofluorescence
  • B-scan ultrasound
  • consider ICG/fluorescein angiography
  • consider MRI orbit


  • The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease; Kalla Gervasio MD, Travis Peck MD et al; Lippincott Williams&Wilkins; 8th Edition (2021)
  • Review of Ophthalmology: Neil J. Friedman; Peter K. Kaiser; William B. Trattler; Elsevier, 3rd Edition (2018)
  • Bagnis A, Cutolo CA, Corallo G, Musetti D, Nicol√≤ M, Traverso CE. Chorioretinal folds: a proposed diagnostic algorithm. Int Ophthalmol. 2019 Nov;39(11):2667-2673. doi: 10.1007/s10792-019-01083-y. Epub 2019 Feb 20. PMID: 30788659.
  • Agrawal M, Tripathy K. Choroidal Folds. [Updated 2022 Feb 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:
  • 1 von, ¬© The University of Iowa; Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0).
    • 1 Contributor: Matthew Benage, MD; Randy Kardon, MD, PhD
  • 2 von, Contributor: Steven M Coven